1. Conformism, conformal behavior
2. The study conformism
3. Positive and negative values
List of sources used
conformism adaptation power subordination
Conformism, conformal behavior conformality
in its public nature is active, particularly on their interests. But on the
requirements of others dealing with activity much more difficult. Under the
influence of society, state, traditions, public opinion, authority of elders,
social group or its leader, under direct or indirect pressure from other
people's personality can control its activity, its direct channel to the
requirements of those entities or public institutions to adapt some of their
interests the interests of others, to become compliant, ductility and even
humble, that is passive to take the interests of other life position. This form
of expression of individual positions, there is passivity, nekrytychnist,
pliability, prystosovnytstvo about the impact on her environment, called conformism.
of group most often sold through conformism as a phenomenon of group pressure.
Conformism is continually in small groups to work in groups of interest in
families and affects the individual life settings and change behavior.
the level of everyday consciousness, this concept is positive, negative and
(Latin conformis - like, respectively) - passive acceptance prystosovnytske
group standards of behavior, the indisputable recognition of existing orders,
rules and regulations, unconditional worship of the authorities.
interpretation covers various conformism, though outwardly similar, phenomena:
- the lack of a person's own views, beliefs, character weakness,
prystosovnytstvo - uniformity in behavior, with the consent of the individual
views, norms, values of most people who surround him - the result of pressure
group norms on individual who as a result of this pressure begins to act,
think, feel the same way as other members of the group.
prystosovnytske attitude to other requirements, of course trustworthy, strong
personality (personality-authors of conformism and Packaging);
the same treatment to the requirements of large, medium or small social group
to which it belongs (intragroup conformity);
the same treatment to the requirements of society, its institutions, the
dominant social groups, government (public or social conformity). Often to
refer to different manifestations of the phenomenon of conformism use the term
"conformal behavior" and "conformism". Because conformity
is broader socio-psychological phenomenon, in most case studies referred
Conformal behavior and conformism. The contents of these concepts points to a
purely psychological characteristics of positions regarding the individual
positions of the group: he accepts or rejects the group recognized norms,
standards, values, properties.
(Latin conformis - like) behavior - human action, which is manifested in its
compliance of real or perceived pressure groups to change the settings and
actions according to position the community to which she is involved.
response of the individual to group pressure can be verbal and behavioral. For
social psychology is important, or changing opinion of an individual because of
what he saw something in (or made changes in his cognitive structure), or
outside it only shows changes, and actually own opinion has not changed.
- a tendency of an individual subject to the opinion of the majority group,
real or imagined group pressure.
shows where conflict of opinion between the person and the position of the
group. Tag it is to change attitudes and behavior of an individual under the
terms of the majority. By essentially conformality can be external (individual
only outside opinion demonstrates conquering group, continuing to do it
internally resistance) and internal (real conversion of individual
installations of the primary position of the individual in favor of the group,
most assimilation of his thoughts). Depending on the type of person group is
the negativism - resistance to group pressure to demonstrate behaviors or
opinions that contradict the position of the group. Often the concept of
"negativism" is used in the sense that the concept and "nonconformism.
Sometimes it separates content, describing the negativism as demonstration of
behavior or thought contrary to the views of the majority, regardless of
whether this majority is right, and nonconformism - as a demonstration of
thought or behavior, based on their experience, regardless of the opinions or
behavior of most group . As the antithesis conformism use the term "nonconformnist"
(Latin for non - not, conformis - like, respectively) - complete disagreement,
violation of any norms and values of the group. Tag it considered the objection
claims, expectations, rules, orders society. However, interpretation
nonconformism not known as an alternative, and one of the manifestations of
conformism. Measure of human caused conformism and depends
of significance for her attitude surrounding - how important it is for her, the
lower level of conformism;
the authority of those who express the various views in the group - the higher
their status and authority for the group, the higher conformality members of
conformism depends on the number of people expressing one or another position
of their unanimity;- fourthly, the measure is determined conformism age and
gender rights - women in general more conformal than men, and children - than
fact, comfort - something controversial, primarily because accommodating the
individual does not always indicate real change in his perception.
are two variants of individual behavior:
That is, when opinion is changing as a result of individual belief in
Motivated - if he shows changes.
are three levels of conformal human behavior:
submission (impact group has an external nature, duration conformal behavior is
limited to a particular situation);
Identification (exists in two forms, one can completely or partially assimilate
themselves to other group members or participants of interaction expected from
each specific behavior, trying to justify these mutual expectations);
internalization (related to the value of the person) in this situation, human
behavior is relatively independent of external influences, because the views or
opinions of others joined in the value system of the person.
is also considered as a function of three types of influence.
an information conformality of the group, where opinions of the group is
considered adequate reflection of reality.
normative conformism of the group when a person is interested to estimate the
conformism of the experimenter. It arises when the interests of the guinea
focused primarily on assessment of the no group, and experimenter.
2. The study conformism
Social psychology for
several decades studying the problem of conformism. In the mid 30' s of
XX century. American Psychologist Muzafer Sheriff investigated in vitro the
formation of group norms and their impact on people using so-called
avtokinetychnyy effect (optical illusion of movement of the fixed points of
light in a dark visual field). The result of this and similar experiments have
led to the following conclusions: - The individual
uncertainty by matching and comparing their own views on others, inclined to
agree, as a rule, with the majority to adapt to it - a common reference system,
formed in the presence of others continues to influence
the views and opinions of the individual, even without this source of
influence. M. Cherif not actually researched
conformism. The objective was to study the process of forming social norms in a
laboratory, and clarify various aspects naviyuvanosti rights. In the early 50' s of
XX century. American researcher Solomon Ash drew attention to
the problem of group pressure, using a method "reasonably groups. A
considerable intensification of research and debate about the nature of
conformism as a social phenomenon that took place in the coming decades, social
psychology has enriched many concrete conclusions. In particular it was found
that a high degree of conformism is the result of underdeveloped intellect, low
self and others. It was then concluded that a person can be a conformist or a
nonconformist. So there are two options for treatment of personality to the
group opinion: or disagreement, alienation, or full acceptance of it. Also
alleged that the degree of conformism depends on the situation, the composition
and structure of the group. However, these factors have not been elucidated
(presumably because of the nature of laboratory groups that are not allowed to
consider the significance for the individual group thought). Negative role
played by abstraction and participating in the experiment that revealed the
lack of information on their individual characteristics,
social characteristics (values, beliefs, etc.). And most
model variations of behavior was somewhat simplistic, since it takes into
account only two types: conformal and demonstrate the non. In
fact, real life in a group may be associated with the third type of behavior,
based on a conscious recognition of individual codes and standards
groups. Despite these shortcomings, Asha S. technique was used in subsequent
experiments, as many scientists consider it a model of scientific creativity,
unequivocally recognizing its humanistic orientation. Further investigation
konkretyzuvaly factors underlying conformal behavior, influencing it and
determine the level of conformism. This - a conflict (real, imaginary) between
the individual and group; pressure (influence) groups through evaluation,
offensive jokes, etc. Most unanimity, solidarity groups, especially the
situation, especially the relationship of individuals and groups, especially
the response to pressure groups; tender and age characteristics,
individual characteristics of the individual, social and cultural features, the
significance of the situation for the individual and others. American social
psychologist Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard discovered and described the
kinds of normative and informational influence on a group of individuals.
Regulatory impact on an
individual associated with group norms. The point is that most of exerting
pressure, and her opinion is seen as representative of the group norm.
Regulatory requirements surrounding the group of people from early childhood:
it is learned follow group norms and respect them.
Information on the impact
of the individual involves changing individual positions on the group due to
the fact that an individual applies to the group as a source of information. If
the regulatory impact of changing the system of interpersonal relationships,
the information - determines aspirations are more or less adequate
assessment of reality.
Festinher L., M. Deutsch and H. Gerard are two types of conformal behavior:
subordination, that is the conscious adaptation to the opinions of a group.
Thus there are two well-being of the individual:
1) submission is
accompanied by an acute internal conflict;
2) adaptation occurs
without any conspicuous internal conflict;
subordination, when individuals perceive the opinion of the group as its own
and follows them outside. Use the following types of domestic
1) making thoughtless
wrong opinions of a group on a "majority is always right";
2) the adoption of the
group, but the use of your logic explanation of choice.
3. Positive and negative
Conformal person show
weaker intellect than independent, they are more characteristic of dogmatism,
stereotype thinking, unclear thoughts and utterances. Human motivation and
emotional functions of conformal entity characterized by
insufficient strength of character, inability to control oneself in stressful
situations. In the field of consciousness, they suffer from inferiority
complex, and exhibit relations with other authoritarianism, concerns the
affairs of others. Conformism as a measure of subordination rights group norms
and requirements is not a feature of personality, interpersonal relations and
property related to the level of the group, the nature of its activities, the
situation in the presence of a group of individuals that deviate from the
general opinion, and others. Many researchers believe conformism negative phenomenon,
which is characterized by a conscious adaptation to reality even
prystosovnytstvo. their estimates based on the belief that conformism are
inherently not as a psychological phenomenon, as ethical.
But opponents argue
that conformism has important functions in the process of socialization of
personality, its integration into the social community. Quite peculiar views
expressed on the phenomenon of conformism, which, unlike conformism, some
scientists consider valuable, ie it is beyond valuation. An important
difference from conformism conformism they see that conformism can manifest not
only at the level of individual differences, but on the level of group
situation. Known also attempts to interpret the conformality to group norms in
some cases positive, in others - as a negative factor in the functioning of the
group. According to the supporters of this view, sometimes even conformism can
stimulate altruistic behavior or behavior that is consistent with the moral
standards of the individual. However, adoption of group norms to pursue private
gain qualifies as prystosovnytstvo. In such circumstances conformality causes
various adverse effects.
Thus, the conformality
to group norms in some situations a positive factor, while others - negative.
Compliance with certain established standards of conduct is important, and
sometimes just need for effective group action. Another thing, when the
agreement with the norms of the group assuming the character of extracting
personal gain and becomes prystosovnytstvo regulatory pressure (influence) is
entering a difficult interaction with the opportunities and resources that are
available to the minority group.
List of sources used
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VT System Ciba social psychology: a manual. - K.: textbooks, 2006. - 327 sec.